Research, Articles, Histories and other references relevant to Badminton.
National Badminton Museum of
England - The definitive badminton museum with a very extensive
collection dating from the very early days til present. Collection is housed
at the National Badminton Centre in Milton Keynes since 2003. Extensive
online material also starting in 2005.
- Badminton Museum of
Ireland - online collection until a site is found. Online since 2010.
Badminton Museum- in development phase, looking for artifacts and a
Serious research has been done by various groups over the years. A common
and very difficult topic is flight characteristics of shuttlecocks. A sampling
of research is included here- much more can be found elsewhere.
- Comparison of mental and physical practice on acquisition and retention of long service in
Badminton, Salehian and Hosseini, 2014.
- Treatment of chronic Achilles tendon pain by Kinesio taping in an amateur
badminton player, Lee and Yoo. 2011. A technical look at Achilles
tendon injury and treatment.
The Transformation and Development of Badminton as a Global Sport Dominated by
Asian Players, Teams, Sponsors and Brands, 1893-2012: Multidisciplinary Perspectives,
Lim Peng Han and Mohd Salleh Aman, University of Malaya, 2012. Note that this
material was also published as
THE DEVELOPMENT OF BADMINTON AS A GLOBALISED GAME AND THE DOMINANCE OF CHINESE AND KOREAN FEMALE BADMINTON PLAYERS AND TEAMS IN UBER CUP COMEPETITIONS AND THE OLYMPIC GAMES: CHALLENGES FOR ASEAN COUNTRIES TO IMPROVE ELITE BADMINTON TRAINING TO COMPETE AND OVERCOME THESE LEADING PLAYERS AND TEAMS
- Coefficient of Restitution in Badminton Racket. 2012.
- The Effect Of String Tension On Shuttlecock Velocity
experimental work showing definite trend. ~2010.
- Shuttle Velocity of a
Badminton Drop Shot. 2013
- Flexible beam analysis of the effects of string tension
and frame stiffness on racket performance. Rod Cross 2000.
- Aerodynamic Properties and Flow Behavior for a Badminton
Shuttlecock with Spin at High Reynolds Numbers. Nakagawa et al. 9th
ISEA Conference. 2012
- Flight trajectory simulation of badminton shuttlecocks.
2011 Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology
- Linking Badminton Racket Design and Performance Through Motion Capture.
Kwan and Rasmussen 2011.
Strategies used by Indonesian Elite Badminton Players. 1998
- Thoughts of Korean Women Badminton Singles Players in Various Situations during Games.
2004. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences
- Integration of disabled and able-bodied sport activities in
badminton. A case study of the Finnish Para-badminton. Master's Thesis, 2013.
- Predicting the outcome of
games of badminton on the Basis of the analysis of networks,
2014. Slovenian study looking at badminton matches from purely statistical
- Shuttle Aerodynamics, Alison J. Cooke,
published 1999 in "Sports Engineering"
- A Study of Shuttlecock's Trajectory in Badminton, Chen,
Pang and Chen, Journal of Sports Science and
The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a
motion equation for the flight of the badminton and to find the
relationship between the air resistance force and a shuttlecock’s
- A Study of Badminton Shuttlecock Aerodynamics,
Alam, Chowdhury, Tehppadungporn and Subic, 2009. Published in Proceedings of
- Sports Aerodynamics, Sanjay Mittal,
2012. Computational study as part of class work at IIT
- Measurements of Aerodynamic
Properties of Badminton Shuttlecocks, Alam, Chowdhury, Tehppadungporn and
Subic, 2010. Presented at 8th conference of ISEA.
- A Comparative Study of Feather and Synthetic
Badminton Shuttlecock Aerodynamics. Alam, Chowdhury, Tehppadungporn,
Moria and Subic, 2010. Presented at 17th Australian Fluid Mechanics
These items are available only via purchase or are otherwise
copyright-restricted. Follow the below links as appropriate
- Finite-Element Study on Effect of String Tension toward Coefficient of Restitution of a Badminton Racket String-Bed
A. Nasruddin Fakhrizal, Syahrom Ardiyansyah, Muhamad Noor Harun, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, Abdul Hafidz
Omar. 2013. One of the few objective studies of racket tension.
Understanding of racket parameters is important for players to gain the best racket which could improve their games performances. This present study was aimed to investigate the effect of string tension toward performance of coefficient of restitution (COR) by neglecting the effect of racket frame stiffness. A finite element simulation of collision between ball and string-bed was performed in Abaqus explicit. The ball was dropped onto the centre of mass (CM) of the string-bed area with different values of string tension. From the results, the increasing values of string tension lead to increase values of COR. This finding will contribute to the enlargement of sweet spot in badminton racket as well as improving the player performances.
- Aerodynamics of Badminton Shuttlecocks, Aekaansh Verma,
Ajinkya Desai, Sanjay Mittal, published in Journal of Fluids and Structures,
Volume 41, August 2013.
This research is only available via
A computational study is carried out to understand the aerodynamics of
shuttlecocks used in the sport of badminton. The speed of the shuttlecock
considered is in the range of 25–50 m/s. The relative contribution of various
parts of the shuttlecock to the overall drag is studied. It is found that the
feathers, and the net in the case of a synthetic shuttlecock, contribute the
maximum. The gaps, in the lower section of the skirt, play a major role in
entraining the surrounding fluid and causing a difference between the
pressure inside and outside the skirt. This pressure difference leads to
drag. This is confirmed via computations for a shuttlecock with no gaps. The
synthetic shuttle experiences more drag than the feather model. Unlike the
synthetic model, the feather shuttlecock is associated with a swirling flow
towards the end of the skirt. The effect of the twist angle of the feathers
on the drag as well as the flow has also been studied.
- Perceiving the affordance of string tension for power
strokes in badminton: Expertise allows effective use of
all string tensions. i.e. the better the player the less effect string
tension has. [21SEP2014]
- Badminton Shuttlecock Aerodynamics: Synthesizing Experiment and Theory,
Chan and Rossman, 2012.
This research is only available via
In this study, the flight performance of four models of shuttlecocks, two with feather skirts and two with plastic, is investigated. The aerodynamic forces of each shuttlecock at varying air speed and angle of attack are measured in a subsonic wind tunnel. Empirical correlations derived from these data are then incorporated into an adaptive, shuttlecock-specific numerical trajectory simulation. These simulated trajectories are in good agreement with experimental results, with average and maximum errors of 2.5 and 9.1% in vertical distance travelled. The aerodynamically adaptive trajectory model is used to analyse four common types of badminton shot: serve, net, smash and high clear. From these simulations, it is found that the trajectory paths of the higher quality plastic shuttlecock most closely mimic those of the feather shuttlecock of same speed grade. Results of both aerodynamic testing and trajectory simulation provide quantitative support for players’ preference for the ‘feel’ and responsiveness of feather shuttlecocks. It is also observed that plastic shuttlecocks fly faster than do feather shuttlecocks under smash shots, a behaviour explained by a reduction of drag due to skirt deformation observed in wind tunnel experiments at high flight velocity. The results of the study highlight the influence of shuttlecock design and material on shuttlecock flight.
- Deceleration of a Shuttlecock,
Shibata and Amornpatchara, From ISB (International School of Bangkok)
Journal of Physics, June
2010. Experimental data with fitted model.
- Terminal Velocity of a Shuttlecock
in Vertical Fall,, Paestrel, Lynch and Armenti. Villanova
University, 1979. Experimental data and modeling.
Some serious engineering work is required for badminton. This is
especially true for rackets which have evolved greatly over the years and which
have very demanding requirements.
- Designing The
Worlds Best Racket. Maxine Kwan, PhD Thesis 2010, Institute of
Mechanical Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark.
- "Bird2" Hybrid Shuttle. Gordon
Willis and Steve Lambert launched Bird
Sports around 2007 with a goal of modernizing shuttle design (i.e.
another effort to make a synthetic shuttle that actually flies like a feather
shuttle). They designed a hybrid shuttle (cork base, dual-section synthetic
skirt) that they call "Bird2" and as of 2014 are apparently looking to go
into production and roll this out to the Badminton world. [29AUG2014]
There have been many patents related to shuttlecock design. Not
surprisingly most relate to synthetic shuttles. Below is a small sampling of
interesting patents, primarily filed with US
Patent Office. There are many more available from patent offices around
the world. Note that many of these ideas were never commercially successful and
that many of these were also patented in multiple countries.
William Charles Carlton pioneered much of the development of modern rackets and synthetic shuttlecocks.
Here are some of his inventions through the years.
- US2626805- Shuttlecock and Method of
Making, 1950. Carlton examines one-piece moldings.
- US2626806- Shuttlecock, 1950.
Carlton's early ideas for skirt design.
- USD163367- Shuttlecock. 1950.
Alternate pattern for skirt molding
- USD163368- Shuttlecock, 1950. Molded
- US2626807- Molded Shuttlecock, 1951.
Carlton's pioneering work on synthetic shuttles.
- US2632647- Shuttlecock. 1952.
One-Piece molded skirt.
- CA496289A- Shuttlecock Construction,
1953. Addresses stiffness of the skirt for synthetics.
- GB686044A- An improvement in Shuttlecock Construction., 1953.
One-piece molded skirt with airfoils.
- GB686403A- Shuttlecock and Method of Making, 1953.
Tooling for producing the skirt.
- GB689532A- An Improved Shuttlecock, 1953.
Rib design with continuous circular skirts.
- GB751577A- A Method of Manufacturing a Shuttlecock, 1956.
Attaching the skirt to a base.
- CA558195A- Shuttlecock, 1958.
Injection molding of skirt.
Shuttlecock. 1959. Focuses on the base.
- CA592439A- Spigotted End
Shuttlecock, 1960. Head design and attachment to skirt.
- GB828370A- Shuttlecock, 1960. Rubber base.
- GB861649A- An Improved Shuttlecock, 1961. Use ribs to control spin.
- GB869881A- Shuttlecock, and Methods of Making It, 1961. Addresses skirt collapse.
- GB907700A- An Improved Shuttlecock, 1962. Add flutes for spin.
- GB908684A- An Improved Shuttlecock and Skirt Structure Therefor, 1962. Details of the skirt.
- GB670147A- An Improved Shuttlecock., 1962. Early synthetic skirt design.
- US3313543- Shuttlecock with Blade-Like
Stems, 1964. This is very much like the Carlton nylon shuttles that were
used widely in the 60's and 70's as they were about the first to fly acceptably.
- GB978388A- A Shuttlecock, 1964. Angular details of skirt.
- GB996695A- Shuttlecock, 1965. Molded skirt with many sections.
- GB1099400A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1968. Titanium Frame
- GB1112028A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames and Methods of Manufacturing same, 1968. Tubular steel frame.
- GB1112029A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1968. Tubular metal frame.
- GB1112030A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1968. Tubular metal frame.
- GB1113707A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames and Methods of Manufacturing same, 1968. Tubular metal frame with dual shaft.
- US3560128A- Shuttlecock and method of Making the Same, 1968.
Press-On molded base.
- US3431626A- Method of Making a Racket Frame, 1969. Tubular metal with flared holes.
- US3548484A- Method of Preparing for Stringing the Frame of a Games Racket, 1969. Add grommets to holes in tubular frame.
- US3431626- Method of
Making a Racket Frame. 1969. Tubular steel frame with "Y" shaped
- CA817815A- Metal Racket Frames, 1969.One-piece tubular frame.
- GB1166078A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1969. Discusses an early grommet concept.
- GB1198800A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1970. Flanged hole details
- GB1201649A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1970. Use of carbon fibers in the frame.
- GB1207662A- Improvements in or
Relating To Racket Frames, 1970. T Joint and tubular frame with varied thickness.
- US3548484- Method of
Preparing for Stringing the Frame of a Games Racket. 1970. Introduces
- US3556524- Method of
Manufacturing Rackets. 1971. Tubular steel frame.
- CA873489A- Racket Frames, 1971Plastic frame reinforced with carbon fiber.
- CA878126A- Method of Manufacturing Metal Racket Frames, 1971.Tubular frame construction.
- GB2325417A- A Shuttlecock., 1996. Discusses how to keep balloon from being damaged.
- GB2312855A- An improved Shuttlecock., 1997. Add a balloon inside the skirt.
- GB2343125A- A Shuttlecock., 2000. Balloon is used to distort the skirt.
- GB2353482A- Shuttlecock Having Flaps to Improve Air
Resistant, Spin, and Turnover Properties., 2001. Examines how to get synthetic shuttle to fly more like feathered.
- US6227991- Shuttlecock. 2001. Skirt
has a bladder inside to adjust speed.
- US6431938- Inflatable Balloon Assembly,
2002. Carlton's work on an adjustable shuttlecock using a bladder
inside the skirt.
- US2004077442A1- Shuttlecock, 2004. Flaps to control spin.
- GB2476971A- An Improved Shuttle for Badminton
, 2011. Triangular plates are connected to minimal number of ribs.
There were of course many other designers also involved with Badminton dating
back to the early days of the sport.
- US227884- Toy
Shuttlecock. 1880. Very early shuttlecock design using feathers attached to
- GB190525803A- An Improved Shuttlecock.
1905. Shuttle emits a "musical or other note or sound" when struck.
- GB191304606A- Improvements in and
Related to Shuttle-cocks. 1913. Some early work looking at attachment of
feathers to a base.
- US1393407- Shuttlecock
device for use in Games. 1921. Feathered skirt with various base designs.
- US1541828- Tennis racket and
the Like. 1925. Channelized metal frame with dual shaft.
- US2171223- Racket for
Tennis and Batting Games and method of Manufacturing Same. 1939. Dual-shaft
- US2247486- Shuttlecock. 1940. Skirt
design from folded sheet and attachment to base.
- CA388507A- Badminton Shuttlecocks. 1937.
Explores multiple skirt designs.
- US2218593- Shuttle for Game of Badminton.
1938. Molded skirt with round holes.
- US2163236- Badminton
Bird. 1939. Solid skirt with round holes and vanes.
- US2302845- Shuttlecock. 1941. Unusual
skirt design made from one-piece folded sheet.
- US2556029- Plastic
Shuttlecock. 1951. Synthetic feathers mounted similarly to natural feathers.
- US2742289- Game Racket
Construction. 1956. One-piece tubular metal head with dual shaft.
- US3086777- Racket for
Lawn-Tennis and Similar Games. 1963. Pinched tubular frame with
dual shaft and welded crossbar at throat.
- US3752479- Shuttlecock or Butterfly
Adjustable in Range or Speed. 1973. Adjustable speed via feathers attached
to molded skirt
- WO8400306A1- A Shuttlecock. 1983.
"Introverted" skirt design forming a more-or-less spherical shape.
- US4593905A- Racquet stringing system with string tension indicating means.
Focuses on tennis but same principle could apply to other rackets.1986.
- US4657262- Shuttlecocks. 1987.
Focuses on ability to adjust speed.
- US4995619- Shuttlecock. 1991.
Bellows-like base with various skirt designs.
- US5265886- Shuttlecock. 1993.
Feathered skirt with 4 feathers and a base that makes audible noise when hit.
- US5282618- Racket with
Improved Shock-Absorbing means. 1994. Conical shock absorber.
- US5620180- Grip of Badminton
Racket. 1997. Grip incorporates partial shock-absorber.
- US4995619 A - Shuttlecock. 1999.
Hollow head with ability to make noise while flying.
US6315687- Adjustable Shuttlecock. 2001.
More for use with football rather than badminton.
- US6752138 - Shuttlecock Launcher
and Method for Launching. 2004. Mechanical launcher using rotating
- US6709353- Racquet Sport Game and
Shuttlecock for use Therewith. 2002. Spiral skirt design and radically
different game of badminton involving goals.
- USD587324 S- Badminton Racket.
2009. T-joint design.
- EP2687273A1- Artificial Feather for
Shuttlecock, Shuttlecock for Badminton and Manufacturing Method for Artificial
feather and Shuttlecock. 2012. Rather than use molded skirt, look at
creating synthetic feather.
- WO2013005044A1- Shuttlecock. 2013.
Cup-shaped skirt attached to base by a central post.
- EP2236176 - Shuttlecock for
Badminton. 2012. Conventional design but using artificial feathers made
- US20140011615- Stringing
Means for a Badminton Racket. 2014.
US20140335980 - Shuttlecock
and Manufacturing Method Thereof. 2014. Design that allows replacement
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07 Jan 2017 13:26